Multifunctional Sonosensitizers in Sonodynamic Cancer Therapy
Subin Son,1,# Ji Hyeon Kim,1,# Xianwen Wang,2,# Chuangli Zhang,3,# Shin A Yoon,4,# Jinwoo Shin,1,# Amit Sharma,5,* Min Hee Lee,4,*Liang Cheng,2,*Jiasheng Wu3,* and Jong Seung Kim1,*
1Department of Chemistry, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea.
2Institute of Functional Nano & Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, P. R. China.
3Key Laboratory of Photochemical Conversion and Optoelectronic Materials, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, P. R. China.
4Department of Chemistry, Sookmyung Women’s University, Seoul 04310, Korea.
5CSIR-CSIO, Sector 30C, Chandigarh, 160030, India.
Phototherapy, including photodynamic therapy and photothermal therapy, has the potential to treat several types of cancer. However, to be an effective anticancer treatment, it has to overcome limitations, such as low penetration depth, low target specificity, and resistance conferred by the local tumor microenvironment. As a non-invasive technique, low-intensity ultrasound has been widely used in clinical diagnosis as it exhibits deeper penetration into the body compared to light. Recently, sonodynamic therapy (SDT), a combination of low-intensity ultrasound with a chemotherapeutic agent (sonosensitizer), has been explored as a promising alternative for cancer therapy. As all known cancer treatments such as chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy, photothermal therapy, immunotherapy, and drug delivery have been advanced independently enough to complement others substantially, the combination of these therapeutic modalities with SDT is opportune. This review article highlights the recent advances in SDT in terms of sonosensitizers and their formulations and anticancer therapeutic efficacy. Also discussed is the potential of SDT in combination with other modalities to address unmet needs in precision medicine.