Tin Halide Perovskites: Progress and Challenges
Wen-Fan Yang,1 Femi Igbari,1 Yan-Hui Lou,2,* Zhao-Kui Wang,1,* and Liang-Sheng Liao1
1Institute of Functional Nano & Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials & Devices Soochow University
2Soochow Institute for Energy and Materials Innovations & Key Laboratory of Advanced Carbon Materials and Wearable Energy Technologies of Jiangsu Province
The chemical composition engineering of lead halide perovskites via a partial or complete replacement of toxic Pb with tin has been widely reported as a feasible process due to the suitable ionic radius of Sn and its possibility of existing in the +2 state. Interestingly, a complete replacement narrows the bandgap while a partial replacement gives an anomalous phenomenon involving a further narrowing of bandgap relative to the pure Pb and Sn halide perovskite compounds. Unfortunately, the merits of this anomalous behavior have not been properly harnessed. Although promising progress has been made to advance the properties and performance of Sn-based perovskite systems, their photovoltaic (PV) parameters are still significantly inferior to those of the Pb-based analogs. This review summarizes the current progress and challenges in the preparation, morphological and photophysical properties of Sn-based halide perovskites, and how these affect their PV performance. Although it can be argued that the Pb halide perovskite systems may remain the most sought after technology in the field of thin film perovskite PV, prospective research directions are suggested to advance the properties of Sn halide perovskite materials for improved device performance.