An Implantable Blood Clot–based Immune Niche for Enhanced Cancer Vaccination
Qin Fan1*, Qingle Ma1*, Jingyu Bai1,2, Jialu Xu1, Ziying Fei1, Ziliang Dong1, Atsushi Maruyama3, Kam W. Leong4, Zhuang Liu1, Chao Wang1†
1Institute of Functional Nano & Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123, China.
2 The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215004, China.
3 Department of Life Science and Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 B-57, Nagatsuta, Yokohama 226-8501, Japan.
4 Department of Biomedical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA.
Cancer immunotherapy using cancer vaccines has shown great potential in the prevention and treatment of cancer. Here, we report an implantable autologous blood clot scaffold for enhanced cancer vaccination. It comprises a gel-like fibrin network formed by coagulation of blood to trap a large number of red blood cells. Upon implantation, the cross-linked RBCs in the blood clot can attract and recruit a great number of immune cells, leading to the formation of an “immune niche.” Encapsulated with tumor-associated antigen and adjuvant, the blood clot vaccine (BCV) can induce a robust anticancer immune response. The BCV combined with immune checkpoint blockade effectively inhibits tumor growth in B16F10 and 4T1 tumor models. The proposed implantable blood clot cancer vaccine can be readily made by mixing the blood from patients with cancer with immunomodulating agents ex vivo, followed by reimplantation into the same patient for personalized cancer immunotherapy in future clinical translation.