Renal-Clearable PEGylated Porphyrin Nanoparticles for Image-Guided Photodynamic Cancer Therapy
Liang Cheng,* Dawei Jiang, Anyanee Kamkaew, Hector F. Valdovinos, Hyung-Jun Im, Liangzhu Feng, Christopher G. England, Shreya Goel, Todd E. Barnhart, Zhuang Liu, and Weibo Cai*
Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123, China
Department of Radiology University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, WI 53705, USA
Nanomaterials with renal clearance from the body within a reasonable timescale have shown great promises in the area of nanomedicine recently. However, the integration of theranostic and renal clearance properties into a single ultrasmall nanostructure remains a great challenge. Herein, meso-tetra(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin (TCPP) structure is utilized as a model, for the first time using noninvasive dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) imaging to investigate the balance of the renal clearance and tumor uptake behaviors of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified porphyrin nanoparticles (TCPP-PEG) with various molecular weights. This study finds that TCPP-PEG nanoparticles with larger molecular weight show higher tumor uptake due to the enhanced permeability and retention effect, while the lower ones tend to be better for renal clearance. Based on dynamic PET and fluorescence dual-modal imaging modalities, the TCPP-PEG10K nanoparticles seem to be an excellent choice for the balance of renal clearance and tumor retention. In vitro and in vivo photodynamic therapy confirms an excellent therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, this work presents a simplified approach to fabricate and select biocompatible multifunctional TCPP-PEG-based theranostic agents with renal clearance behavior, which highlights the clinical application potential of TCPP-PEG nanoparticles as theranostic probes for imaging-guided cancer therapy.