NIR-II Photoacoustic-Active DNA Origami Nanoantenna for Early Diagnosis and Smart Therapy of Acute Kidney Injury
Yanan Xu#, Qian Zhang#, Runzhi Chen, Haiting Cao, Jie Tang, Yuqi Wu, Xing Lu, Binbin Chu, Bin Song*, Houyu Wang*, and Yao He*
Suzhou Key Laboratory of Nanotechnology and Biomedicine, Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, China
Herein, we designed and synthesized a novel microRNA (miR)-responsive nanoantenna capable of early diagnosis and smart treatment of acute kidney injury (AKI). The nanoantenna was made of two miniature gold nanorods (AuNRs) (e.g., length: ∼48 nm; width: ∼9 nm) linked together by a rectangular DNA origami nanostructure (rDONs) scaffold (e.g., length: ∼90 nm; width: ∼60 nm) (rDONs@AuNR dimer). The surface plasmon resonance peak of the constructed nanoantenna is located within the NIR-II window (e.g., ∼1060 nm), thus guaranteeing photoacoustic (PA) imaging of the nanoantenna in deep tissues. Intriguingly, the nanoantenna displayed exclusive kidney retention in both healthy mice and ischemia reperfusion-induced AKI mice by leveraging the kidney-targeting ability of rDONs. Distinguished from the stable signals in the healthy mice, the PA signals of the nanoantenna would turn down in the AKI mice due to the AuNR detached from rDONs upon interaction with miR-21, which were up-expressed in AKI mice. The limit of detection toward miR-21 was down to 2.8 nM, enabling diagnosis of AKI as early as 10 min post-treatment with ischemia reperfusion, around 2 orders of magnitude earlier than most established probes. Moreover, the naked rDON scaffold generated by AKI could capture more reactive oxygen species (e.g., 1.5-fold more than rDONs@AuNR dimer), alleviating ischemic AKI. This strategy provided a new avenue for early diagnosis and smart treatment of AKI.